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Venezuela geographical development in the late twentieth century has resulted in the evolution of the nation’s human geography.  The discovery and development of a wide range of natural resources that include oil, gas, and iron ore stimulated the economic development of the nation.  This has led to migration from the interior toward the cities and industrialized regions and the gradual development of more democratic forms of government.  Nonetheless, many of the traditional social forms inherited from the past continue to influence the demographics of the nation, which retains a relatively rigid class structure based on ethnic heritage.


For much of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Venezuela has a primarily agricultural economy with coffee as the main cash crop.  The population was concentrated in the coastal area, with the Orinoco River as the primary means of access to the interior.  The discovery of oil by foreign interests in the mid twentieth century set the stage for the general economic development of the nation through the exploitation of natural resources.  The nation eventually became one of the world’s major oil producers as the result of development agreements with large multinational oil companies.  In addition, it has become an important supplier of natural gas and iron ore.  Recently, the nation has begun the transition from a supplier of raw materials to a supplier of finished goods, focusing on steel production.  Currently, the government controls the exploitation of natural resources is controlled, and the nation is a member of the OPEC cartel that regulates oil prices.

The development of natural resources stimulated a migration trend away from the agricultural interior and toward the industrialized coastal areas in the second half of the twentieth century.  The majority of the population of the nation is related to the native tribes of the interior, although the government and resources of the nation are controlled by individuals of European. At the same time, the increasingly.

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