Twelfth Century Europe is marked by the rapid the expansion of global commerce from the newly emerging towns and developing city centers like London and Paris. At the same time, Christianity is becoming less tolerant of outside religions and the zeal to kill for those beliefs is becoming more fervent. The Roman Catholic Church, now a true organized body, is increasingly concerned with heresy and publishes the Concordant of Worms in 1121 in which they condemn their first public figure, Peter Abelard. A group in The Church that started as a few theistic crusaders developed into the powerful Knights Templar of Jerusalem. As the public grows weary of trials by ordeal, a new taste for witness and evidence-based trials has developed. Accordingly, the educational spirit has developed on the English Isles and the first classes are held at Oxford University in 1168.
Meanwhile, China has been enjoying the benefits of the Confucius era and has made many technological advancements like the magnetic compass. They were stitching books together and making find pottery by the early parts of the century. The Koreans have also made several developments toward the printing press, including the use of movable type. Japan, however, was in a period of severe political upheaval. Aristocratic families related to the country’s royals were vying for political power; eventually the Taira clan won the prime minister position.