The Taliban, which is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist movement, is also known as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. Mullah Mohammed Omar was the leader of the movement until his death in 2013. The Taliban holds very conservative Islamic views. These conservative values permeate their social codes. Examples include the exclusion of women, the destruction of non-Islamic art, and extremist harsh punishments to criminals.
The Taliban came out of the Afghan Civil War and was originally made up of only 50 student fighters who were trained in Pakistan. The Inter-Services Intelligence group in Pakistan originally started the Taliban. At the beginning, the group only numbered a few hundred soldiers. They did not have many supplies in way of munitions and equipment. In 1996, The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was established. Pakistan and ISI continue to give the Taliban money and military support. The Taliban movement continued to grow.
In 2000, the UN Security Council wanted to send a message to Pakistan and Russia who had been supplying the Taliban with resources. They imposed an arms embargo in hopes that it would discourage countries in sending support to the Taliban forces. The embargos did not prevent Pakistan from sending resources. After the terror attacks on 9/11 Pakistan reported that they had stopped supporting the Taliban but this was later found to be a false claim.
After the 9/11 terror attacks, the Taliban allowed Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda to hide from the United States. They refused to turn Bin Laden over to the United States. This ultimately led to a military action, which removed the Taliban from power in Afghanistan.