24 Hour Customer Service:

Call for a quote line:


The Stoics were the followers of the school of stoicism, founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium. Stoics were especially popular in Rome, characterized by the famous philosophers Seneca and Epictetus, as well as the emperor Marcus Aurelius.Stoics

Stoics believed that ethical behavior was the thrust of human existence and that self-control could overcome destructive emotions. Only when one controlled behavior and achieved clear thinking could one discover logos, or the universal reason. The Stoics also developed propositional logic, which defines an argument as a set of propositions.

Stoics believed that all being was corporeal, and that knowledge can be acquired through reason. The senses are receiving sensations, which the mind can then judge, distinguishing falsehood from reality. Stoics characterized the universe as consisting of active and passive substances. Matter is a passive substance, while Logos is the active substance.

The term stoic has come to mean indifferent to pain or unemotional, because Stoics taught that reason could triumph over passions. Wisdom was self-control and one strove to be free of passions, which in the ancient world had more of a connotation of “suffering” than emotions. Stoics believed that this was a way of life more than just a philosophy, and the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius present numerous stoic practices. Stoics also held the notion that all human beings were equal.

Related Research Paper Topics

Cynics research papers examine the ancient school of philosophy in Greece and Rome who practiced cynicism, in which the purpose of life was to live in agreement with nature and follow virtue.

Roman Philosophers - Although Roman philosophers emerged later than did their Greek counterparts, their influence played a pivotal role in their development.

Philosophy Schoosl of Thought - When considering a field as profound as philosophy, there are several key schools of thought to examine.