Research papers on Signor Orlando show that the Italian objective at the conference was to increase Italy’s material gain. Italy entered the war following the Pact of London, in which they felt they were promised the city of Fiume. Wilson’s reluctance to agree to this annexation was met with indignation, and finally resulted in the withdrawal of the Italians from the conference. Signor Orlando’s motivation for his agenda was identical to David Lloyd George’. The Orlando government would be overthrown if it returned from the conference without Fiume.
Orlando was at a disadvantage in the informal setting of the Council of Four meetings because he did not understand English. However, he was eager to voice his views on issues that would affect Italy, and was observed to do so quite eloquently in Italian. It is unlikely that Orlando was a champion of the war guilty clauses. However, he would support any clause the others desired if it did not directly conflict with the interests of Italy and would help him gain annexation of Fiume.