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Secondary Education

Your research paper may start: Now that the world is approaching universal primary education, the demand for secondary education is taking its place. The World Bank has called secondary education “a gateway to the opportunities and benefits of economic and social development” because of the need for a labor force for knowledge-based economies. Secondary education has become the necessary component to the development of the country and the person. No longer can one meet his/her financial and social needs with just a primary education. The World Bank has identified eight key issues in the development of a secondary education. They are access, quality and relevance, curriculum, assessment, teaching, technology, financing, and governance.

Secondary Education History

Secondary Education

The Commission of the Reorganization of Secondary Education, National Education Association of America used the 1918 Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education as the template defining the education of students ages 12 to 18.. It provided a guide to education based on organization and administration, curriculum, pedagogical theories of teaching and learning, and the role of education in strengthening democracy. The seven main areas included health, command of fundamental processes, worthy home membership, vocation, citizenship, worthy leisure, and ethical character. This list of educational areas continues to be appropriate for young people. As we drift away from them, there begins to be a breakdown in the focus and delivery of a secondary education that offers the individual and society citizens that can move themselves and their country forward, and not be a burden to society. Even with the need for update in technology, there is still the basis for good citizenship, both locally, nationwide, and as citizens of the world.

Globalization has impacted the need for a solid secondary education for young people who will be challenged to upgrade their knowledge base as they move through their lives. But with the base of secondary education, students will succeed.

Secondary education is the learning process after the primary education grades, generally considered to be part of middle school and all of high school. Secondary education goes by many names throughout the world. A few of them are:

  • High School - United States

  • Gymnasia - Germany, Czech Republic, Greece, etc...

  • Lyceum - Italy, France

  • Vocational school - United States

  • Preparatory school - Iraq,

  • Academy or Secondary School - United Kingdom

  • The Transformation into Secondary Education

    It is still required that children attend secondary schooling in most countries. Psychologically, transitioning from primary education to secondary education is one of the most difficult times in an adolescent's life. Numerous times the transition is much more difficult than they would believe. Many times, children attend the same schools; see the same peers throughout their middle school careers and form strong bonds. These bonds which are formed during high school allow the children to make peer based decisions which engage them into more adult scenarios.

    Not only are there changes in the social sphere from middle school to secondary education but also in the academic spheres as well. Many times the support system of their young lives is no longer there because of changing goals or tracks towards various post-secondary educational opportunities. The main goal of secondary education is to foster literacy and prepare students for either the post-secondary education experience at the collegiate level or for entering the workforce as a literate member of society.

    The prospect of fostering literacy at the secondary education level is often the most challenging and the most vital task facing many of the nation’s secondary schools. Although students at the secondary level often have significant skill deficits and harbor a great deal of resistance to further instruction, instilling a strong foundation of literacy skills in these students can have a substantial impact upon their capacity for academic, personal, and professional success. Often times extra measures will need to be taken at the secondary education level in order to engage students. In one inner city in the United States, a program was designed to motivate struggling ninth grade readers who had been identified as at-risk. The program consisted of recruiting secondary-level students to tutor and read to struggling younger students. The program significantly improved the older students’ motivation to apply themselves in reading strategies and other literacy activities. In addition, the program benefited the younger participants as well. It may be concluded that such an approach can emphasize the strengths of struggling secondary education readers, giving them confidence needed for the motivation to improve and succeed.

As you compose your research paper you may include: In the United States, teachers must choose between certification for secondary education or primary education, due to the vast differences of the cognitive abilities between the two age groups. Secondary school teachers these days act as social workers, policemen, security guards, religious supervisors and are also involved in the teaching of morality, in addition to the responsibilities that are generally incurred with the title of teacher. Today teacher burnout is at an historically high level. Teachers typically last less than four years after completing their certification, and older teachers who have been burned-out long before are forced to continue teaching, often with bitter attitudes and using inefficient methods.