Organizational culture research papers define organizational culture as “the shared values, beliefs, norms, expectations, and assumptions that bind people and systems together”. Culture is a whole, containing elements that are interdependent. For example, a leader sets the climate of the organization’s culture. A change in one element succeeds or fails depending on how the changed element fits in with the totality of the culture. A clear organizational culture assist members in integrating to the organizations particular nuances. In assisting in cultural integration, Weiss points to several means of evaluating organizational effectiveness in relation to culture: contingency approach, goal attainment, stake-holder approach, and competing-values framework.
Organizational structure is necessary to define jobs and formal relationships, along with staying organized to complete objectives. Changes to organizational structure often comes in the form of large events such as globalization, technological innovation and/or demographic and diversity changes. Furthermore, there are informal groups within the structure of an organization that exercise authority and power. These informal groups and social networks exercise as much power as do the formal ones.
Change is a constant in organizations and various models and approaches assist in planning for organizational change. Each organization is unique and therefore, no one model serves to assist in planning for change better or more effectively. Factors such as human resistance and organizational goals and interests can be barriers to implementing a particular model; however, models exist to provide templates of guidance.