The Napoleonic Wars are made up of a combination of five different military conflicts. The wars began with the Third Coalition in 1805. The Fourth Coalition was from 1806-1807. The Fifth Coalition was in 1809. The Sixth Coalition was in 1813 and the final conflict was the Seventh Coalition, which took place in 1815. These wars stemmed from the aftermath of the French Revolution.
In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the French government and established himself as the First Consul of France. In 1803, Britain declared war on France after Napoleon agreed to sell newly acquired Louisiana in the Louisiana Purchase. Another cause was that Napoleon took control of Switzerland. The British began the war with a naval blockade to prevent supplies from reaching France. Napoleon responded by enacting embargoes against Britain. Britain responded by capturing the Danish naval fleet. The French won the Third Coalition when Napoleon and forced Austria out of the War and dissolved the Holy Roman Empire. During the Fourth Coalition, Prussia declared war but it only last a very short 19 days. The Fifth Coalition began when Portugal and Spain would not agree to be apart of the Continental System.
The war lasted for over a decade. The United States tried to remain neural, but after American citizens were who were born British were seized to fight in the British navy and the seizure of US merchant ships. In June 1912, Napoleon invaded Russia but ended with Napoleon’s retreat. The Sixth Coalition led to the defeat of Napoleon. This eventually led to his abdication on April 6, 1814. Finally during the Seventh Coalition Napoleon wanted to overthrow Louis XVIII, but this war instead led to Napoleons defeat at Waterloo and his subsequent abdication on June 22nd. On July 15th he surrendered to the British.