Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) is best remembered for his experiments on operant conditioning, where he trained dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell. Winner of the 1904 Nobel Prize in Medicine, Pavlov studied science at the University of St. Petersburg. Paper Masters can compose a custom written research paper on Ivan Pavlov that follows your guidelines.
Ivan Pavlov's Biography
After receiving his doctorate degree, Pavlov studied in Germany during the 1880s, where he experimented on digestion in dogs. In 1891, he took a position at the Institute of Experimental Medicine in St. Petersburg, a position he held for the next forty-five years. Between 1901 and 1904, Pavlov was nominated for a Nobel Prize each year, finally winning in 1904 due to his research on digestion.
Noticing that dogs began to salivate before receiving their food, Pavlov began his famous experiment, ringing a bell whenever food was presented. Eventually, the dogs would begin to salivate at the sound of the bell alone. This is known as operant conditioning, or the conditioned reflex. There is, however, some debate over whether Pavlov actually used a bell, or experimented with a number of sounds. Pavlov was known for the following methods of stimuli induction:
- Electric Shocks
- Tuning Forks
- Visual Stimuli
Ivan Pavlov and Lenin
With the Russian Revolution of 1917, Pavlov was highly esteemed by Lenin and the Soviet Government, and allowed to continue his research, even though he openly criticized the Soviet system. He died in 1936 of double pneumonia, and his laboratory was preserved as a museum by the Soviet government.