Herodotus opens his history with an account of the Phoenicians, one of the better-known groups of Sea Peoples. In Book one, the Phoenicians land at Argos, ostensibly to trade, but use this as a ruse to kidnap the women of Argos, selling them into slavery. Thucydides mentions these barbarians as well, calling the Phoenicians “pirates”. In Herodotus' first book of "The Persian Wars," he refers to a time when people who "had formerly dwelt on the shores of the Red Sea" migrated to the Mediterranean and "landed at many places on the coast," including Argos. Herodotus does not give dates but his information goes along with the scant archaeological evidence suggesting instability in Greece. Other incidents, which seem mythological or legendary, in Herodotus' history also suggest reasons for the instability. Phoenicians,who were from Asia Minor, carried off Greek women. At another time, Greek seafarers carried off the King of Tyre's daughter named Europe. Herodotus suggests conflict between Greeks and Persians that came to a head in the Persian Wars but had been going on centuries before this.
The chief obstacle that the Greeks had to face from victorious army’s was the overtaking of Greek culture and government. For example, Xerxes, having battled the Greeks, defeated the Lacedaimonians at Thermopylae and destroyed Athens. The men who could not escape, were made to be slaves under the rule of Xerxes. Typical of victorious army fashion, Xerxes imposed his tyranny and left Greece in ruines. Herodotus depicted Xerxes as foolish and of poor temperament but still destructive. Herodotus states: "he sent an army against the Egyptian rebels and…reduced the country to a condition of worse servitude than it had ever been in."