Geographic Information Systems
Geographic information systems (GIS) are computer structures that capture, store, and analyze geographical data. Geographic information systems are a vital component of geoinformatics, the science that utilizes information science to address problems of geography. is known as the “Father of GIS” for coininRoger Tomlinsong the term in 1968.
Due in part to the development of nuclear weapons research, by the 1960s computer hardware was instrumental in mapping. Dr. Tomlinson, part of the Canadian Geographical Information System in Ottawa, used computer technology in an attempt to determine the land capability for rural areas in Canada, mapping information about soil, waterfowl, forestry, agriculture, and recreation.
Modern GIS technology uses spatio-temporal location as its primary indexing system. Geographic data is now directly applied to aerial or satellite imagery, as opposed to traditional methods that required the tracing of geographic form on a separate medium. The use of GPS (global positioning satellite) information has also proven to be revolutionary in GIS.
Many times, GIS is employed in custom-designed purposes, with each organization requiring maps for unique purposes. GIS has been used in real estate, crime mapping, national defense, archaeology, and public health. GIS is producing hybrid, three-dimensional maps that represent numerous layers of geography and topology.