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Europe

History reveals that, rather than a common or collective geographic and political entity, Europe was before the period of 1945 one of the most poorly defined, divergent and disorganized continents of the world. The following research offers a brief examination of the geographical perceptions that contributed to a misleading notion of Europe as a simply-defined geographical unit followed by a comprehensive examination of the more accurately diverse and fragmented community and history of Europe.

European History

One of the reasons submitted for why a largely illusionary notion of Europe persisted before 1945 is that European history had, to that point, been viewed in the context of all European nations as a whole and as a community that was clearly distinct from any other in the world. This perception extended to the geographic delineation of Europe, an assertion that is supported by the fact that the predominant geographic expression of Europe has been largely confined to its unique existence or location between the Asian and African continents. Even more, this assertion is supported by the relatively common perception that the landmass of Europe itself essentially marked, if not the center of the world, at least “the center of some other conceptualization of the global environment”.

In the decades leading up to the period of 1945, Europe presented itself as a body of nations and nation-states intent on accomplishing more than a few geographical and political goals. Nevertheless, rather than underscoring the distinctions that existed between countries within the European world, this common intent worked to create the perception of European solidarity, unity and community among foreign spectators. Interestingly, the research suggests that seriousness of the various and ultimately divisive political goals of at least a few rogue European countries were fairly shrouded by the misconception of Europe as merely an advancing and/or forward moving region of the world. Europe research papers have been written by history experts. Paper Masters can produce a custom written project following your guidelines.

Europe

Turbulent Europe

 

Throughout Europe, the 17th and 18th centuries were a turbulent time. Among the many wars that were fought in this age, the War of Spanish Succession and the Seven Year’s War were particularly important.

During the reign of “The Sun King”, Louis XIV, of France, the Kingdom of Spain fought to break away from the hegemonic rule of the Hapsburgs. Following the death of the last Hapsburg king of Spain, the new king, Phillip V slowly began to break away from French domination. Though he was a grandson of France’s King Louis XIV, Phillip V wanted a sovereign Spain, while Louis XIV desired a Spain that would serve France.

The Roman Empire saw the succession of Spain and the expansions of France as a threat. Therefore, Britain, the Danish kingdoms and the HRE joined into an alliance to stem this tide. Britain’s General, John Churchill, brought the greatest victories against France as he out maneuvered Louis XIV, by securing the Netherlands, and the British foothold in Northern Europe.

A few decades later, the next great war, The Seven Years’ War, engulfed Europe again. The pressing of French interests in the North American regions was seen as a threat to other European nations. Prussia and Great Britain allied against France and fought for (actually) nine years. The resulting outcome saw a weakened France on the American continent, and in Europe, and a more powerful Prussia Europe, and a dominant Great Britain in North America.

Since the end of World War II, political leaders in Europe have worked to create a cohesive sustainable union, capable of economic and political harmony. These efforts have culminated in the creation of the European Union (EU) and subsequent economic integration through the introduction of the Euro. The degree of political and economic stability that has been generated in the member countries of the European Union has created an international superpower that is capable of overtaking the United States and Asia in terms of wealth.

While it is clear that Europe has achieved a significant amount of economic and political cohesion, it is also clear that the over arching character of the various governments that comprise the EU are too independent and autonomous to capitulate and create one unified state under a supranational government of Europe. In short, the United States of Europe will fail to materialize as each of the member governments will be unable to agree on a supranational government for political integration. With this argument in mind, this investigation seeks to show how the current path of the EU will prohibit political integration into one cohesive state.

Flag English Short and Formal Names Capital
Albania

Albania

Republic of Albania

Tirana

Albanian: Tiranë

Andorra

Andorra

Principality of Andorra

Andorra la Vella

Catalan: Andora la Vella

Armenia

Armenia

Republic of Armenia

Yerevan

Armenian: (Yerevan)

Austria

Austria*

Republic of Austria

Vienna

German: Wien

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan

Republic of Azerbaijan

Baku

Azerbaijani: Bakı

Belarus

Belarus

Republic of Belarus

Minsk

Belarusian: Мінск (Minsk)

Belgium

Belgium*

Kingdom of Belgium

Brussels

German: Brüssel

French: Bruxelles

Dutch: Brussel

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Sarajevo

Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Latin: Sarajevo

Bosnian, Serbian Cyrillic: Сарајево

Bulgaria

Bulgaria*

Republic of Bulgaria

Sofia

Bulgarian: София (Sofia)

Croatia

Croatia*

Republic of Croatia

Zagreb

Croatian: Zagreb

Cyprus

Cyprus*

Republic of Cyprus

Nicosia

Greek: Λευκωσία (Lefkosia)

Turkish: Lefkoşa

Czech Republic

Czech Republic*

Prague

Czech: Praha

Denmark

Denmark*

Kingdom of Denmark

Copenhagen

Danish: København

Estonia

Estonia*

Republic of Estonia

Tallinn

Estonian: Tallinn

Finland

Finland*

Republic of Finland

Helsinki

Finnish: Helsinki

Swedish: Helsingfors

France

France*

French Republic

Paris

French: Paris

Georgia

Georgia

Tbilisi / T'bilisi

Georgian: თბილისი (T'bilisi)

Germany

Germany*

Federal Republic of Germany

Berlin

German: Berlin

Greece

Greece*

Hellenic Republic

Athens

Greek: Αθήνα (Athína)

Hungary

Hungary*

Budapest

Hungarian: Budapest

Iceland

Iceland

Republic of Iceland

Reykjavík

Icelandic: Reykjavík

Ireland

Ireland

Dublin

English: Dublin

Irish: Baile Átha Cliath

Italy

Italy*

Italian Republic

Rome

Italian: Roma

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

Republic of Kazakhstan

Astana

Kazakh: Астана

Russian: Астана (Astana)

Latvia

Latvia*

Republic of Latvia

Riga

Latvian: Rīga

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein

Principality of Liechtenstein

Vaduz

German: Vaduz

Lithuania

Lithuania*

Republic of Lithuania

Vilnius

Lithuanian: Vilnius

Luxembourg

Luxembourg*

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Luxembourg

German: Luxemburg

French: Luxembourg

Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg

Macedonia

Macedonia

Republic of Macedonia

Skopje

Macedonian: Скопје (Skopje)

Malta

Malta*

Republic of Malta

Valletta

English: Valletta

Maltese: Valletta

Moldova

Moldova

Republic of Moldova

Chișinău

Romanian: Chișinău

Monaco

Monaco

Principality of Monaco

Monaco

French: Monaco

Montenegro

Montenegro

Podgorica

Montenegrin: Подгорица (Podgorica)

Netherlands

Netherlands*

Kingdom of the Netherlands

Amsterdam (capital)

The Hague (seat of government)

Dutch: Amsterdam

Dutch: 's-Gravenhage / Den Haag

Norway

Norway

Kingdom of Norway

Oslo

Bokmål: Oslo

Poland

Poland*

Republic of Poland

Warsaw

Polish: Warszawa

Portugal

Portugal*

Portuguese Republic

Lisbon

Portuguese: Lisboa

Romania

Romania*

Bucharest

Romanian: București

Russia

Russia

Russian Federation

Moscow

Russian: Москва (Moskva)

San Marino

San Marino

Republic of San Marino

San Marino

Italian: San Marino

Serbia

Serbia

Republic of Serbia

Belgrade

Serbian: Београд, Beograd

Slovakia

Slovakia*

Slovak Republic

Bratislava

Slovak: Bratislava

Slovenia

Slovenia*

Republic of Slovenia

Ljubljana

Slovene: Ljubljana

Spain

Spain*

Kingdom of Spain

Madrid

Spanish: Madrid

Sweden

Sweden*

Kingdom of Sweden

Stockholm

Swedish: Stockholm

Switzerland

Switzerland

Swiss Confederation

Bern / Berne

German: Bern

French: Berne

Italian: Berna

Turkey

Turkey

Republic of Turkey

Ankara

Turkish: Ankara

Ukraine

Ukraine

Kiev

Ukrainian: Київ (Kyiv)

United Kingdom

United Kingdom*

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

London

English: London

Vatican City

Vatican City

Vatican City State

Holy See

Vatican City

Italian: Città del Vaticano

*Chart Courtesy of Wikipedia

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