Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system. The endocrine system is the collection of glands throughout the human body that secrete hormones into the blood system. Major endocrine glands include the pituitary, pancreas, ovaries or testes, thyroid, hypothalamus, adrenal glands, and the gastrointestinal tract. There are three types of endocrine diseases: hyposecretion, hypersecretion, and tumors.
Endocrine diseases can affect every one of the glands. Adrenal disorders, including Addison’s disease, Conn’s syndrome, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia result from either insufficient or excess levels of adrenal hormones. Diabetes mellitus, Type 1 and Type 2, and hypoglycemia are glucose homeostasis disorders of the adrenal system.
Thyroid disorders include goiter, hyperthyroidism, thyroid hormone resistance and thyroid cancer. Disorders of the pituitary gland include diabetes insipidus and pituitary tumors, such as Cushing’s disease. There are also endocrine diseases of the sex hormones, including hermaphroditism, ovarian or testicular failure, polycystic ovary syndrome, and inherited disorders such as Tuner syndrome, Kallmann syndrome, and Klienfelter syndrome.
There are also endocrine medical emergencies that may require resection. However, the risks involved in such procedures are significant.