DNA Testing research paper due and don’t know how to start it? How about like this?
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is a long molecule that carries specific genetic information. DNA is found in the nucleus of every cell in the human body with the exception of red blood cells. Given that DNA is polymorphic, scientists are able to distinguish the DNA of one individual from another, making identification a fairly certain outcome.
An individuals DNA is relatively easy to acquire and highly accurate in identification. With the exception of identical twins, no two individuals have the same DNA. Police and forensic experts can obtain DNA samples by way of blood, skin cells, hair, clothing, saliva, perspiration, fingerprints, and semen. Investigators can retrieve DNA evidence from cigarette butts, eyeglasses, facial tissues, and clothing as well as many other sources. In general, only a few cells are needed to make a positive identification.
DNA testing is being touted as the best thing to happen to forensic science since the advent of fingerprinting. The scientific art of DNA testing was introduced in 1986, although it did not become a widely used evidence tool until 1993. The DNA testing procedure involves extracting DNA containing cells from a piece of evidence and then replicating it through an involved procedure of repeated heating and cooling cycles and exposure to an enzyme. Each cycle of the procedure doubles the quantity of DNA, thereby allowing scientists to replicate the original extraction over several million times within a short timeframe.
The process isolates pure DNA and their paired filaments. The DNA is amplified by separating the paired filaments and mixing them with short primers. Because the suspect’s sample and the evidence sample are matched and compared at approximately thirteen different levels, it is virtually impossible to make a mistake if the tests are conducted correctly.