Research Papers on Diplomacy
Diplomacy refers to the relationships that nations have with each other. Diplomacy is often defined as the art of conducting negotiations. A research paper on diplomacy illustrates that it is through the work of professional diplomats that the following issues are addressed:
- War and peace
- Trade negotiations
- Human rights
Since the earliest of times, humans have interacted with one another. Generally, this interaction involved some issue of ownership or right. In prehistoric times, people utilized crude forms of exchange to achieve their goal. The winner, during this era, most likely was the strongest or the fastest. As verbal skills developed, however, so did the methods by which groups of people exchanged their views over certain issues that were controversial. In many cases, the results were warfare. But in other situations, people were able to resolve their difficulties through the art of diplomacy. Just as humans have evolved, so has the art or finesse of diplomacy. In examining the history from around the first millennium to the end of World War I, there is evidence of patterns of diplomacy that illustrate the changes that have occurred. While it would be difficult to discuss the history of diplomacy extensively within the confines of this paper, there are selected periods that are revealing in terms of how such activities were conducted or carried out. The purpose of this paper is to examine the history of diplomacy.
The Art of War, by Sun Tzu, is often held to be the earliest writing about diplomacy. During the ancient period of China, emissaries were sent among the various kingdoms in order to establish alliances, frequently through marriages.
In ancient Greece, the various city-states, such as Athens and Sparta, sent diplomats to each other in order to negotiate specific issues. During the Bronze Age, these diplomats would bring impressive gifts in order to express friendship.
The modern era of diplomacy can be said to have begun in Renaissance Italy, when the emerging city-states, such as Milan, established embassies with other kingdoms. Milan sent an ambassador to the Kingdom of France in 1455, and the practice soon spread throughout Europe. Spain was the first nation to send a permanent representative, an ambassador to England, in 1487.
In the modern world, most nations have a Chief Diplomat. In the United States, this is the Secretary of State. There is also the United Nations, an international forum created to promote peaceful diplomacy as the solution to world crises.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, The Empire of Byzatium took over as the dominant global authority. One of the most notable features associated with this power was the persistence of scandals. Since it was a combination of church and state, it enjoyed the ability to control and dictate in the name of God.
One of the unique features of the Byzantine rulers was the basis of their power. Essentially, to a certain degree, the ruler had to be selected by the people. If he defied their wishes, then he placed his life in jeopardy. Another of the hallmarks of the rule of these emperors was the fact that according the Eastern Church war was never completely excusable. In fact, “the Byzantine Church required a soldier who killed an enemy in battle to do penance for three years before receiving communion again”. Thus, these rulers had to exercise diplomacy with not only their own people but with church leaders as well. They were not always successful. In fact, one emperor was remembered by the Church as “Name of Dung”.
However, what motivated the army of Byzantium to fight was due to its reorganization. Instead of being paid a wage, the soldiers were given land. Thus, when fighting any invaders, they were basically fighting in defense of their own property. Their richness enticed many pagans to become citizens, and as a result, this powerful empire did not have a majority of Christians. But eventually, the army was weakened and this resulted in reliance upon diplomacy rather than their weak military. Because of their richness in combination with a weak army, they became a target.