Church of England
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The Church of England was created by King Henry VIII in 1534, when the Pope refused to grant Henry a divorce from his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. Originally called the English Catholic Church, Anglicanism increasingly came under the sway of the Protestant Reformation until many of its practices were standardized during the reign of Elizabeth I.
Church of England and It's Monarch
The Church of England has as its titular head the reigning monarch of England, but is spiritually led by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
It uses the Book of Common Prayer as is standard prayer book, first published in 1549. It was the first prayer book to include the complete liturgy for a church in the English language.
After the death of Henry VIII, his Catholic daughter Mary assumed the throne, initiating religious warfare throughout England that temporarily ended with Elizabeth I. However, some of the following Stuart monarchs were Catholic, leading to the English Civil War.
Under the reign of the Stuart Dynasty, James I ordered a new, English translation of the Bible, known as the King James Bible. Its Elizabethan language has become a standard for many English-speaking Protestants.
Church of England and the Thirty-Nine Articles
The doctrine of the Church of England is expressed in what is known as the Thirty-Nine Articles, that define the uniqueness of the Church apart from both Catholicism and Calvinism.