Research Papers on Ayatollah Khomeini
Research papers on Ayatollah Khomeini examine how he came to power and his conflict with the Shah of Iran. Paper Masters will write you a history research paper or any type of paper on the Ayatollah that you need.
Ayatollah Khomeini research papers begin with Ruhollah Khomeini emerging as the center of dissent to the Shah of Iran in the 1960s. In 1963 he attempted to ferment a revolt, and was exiled. There were a multitude of both long-term and short-range causes for the 1979 Iranian Revolution. Khomeini believed that the Shah was a moral failure, selling out Iran to the United States and corrupting the soul of Iran with Westernization. Khomeini taught his followers that all Muslim rulers since the death of Ali in the 7th century were usurpers but that the true imam, or spiritual leader, someday would emerge and rule Iran.
Ayatollah Khomenei was born on September 24, 1902 in a small town about a hundred kilometers from the southwest portion of Tehran. His birth name was Imam RuhullAh Al-Musavi Al-Khomeini. Khomenei’s father was killed when he was five months old and his mother and aunt raised him. When he was nineteen years old he was sent to school in the town of Arak to study religious sciences and later attended school in Qum. At school he became exceeding popular with the other students of Ha’iri. Khomenei was a good student and excelled in a number of subjects, but his favorite subjects were those dealing with spiritual philosophy and ethics, especially the religious philosophy of ‘irfan. His treatise, MisbAh al-Hidaya, earned him the respect and attention of his teachers.
Ayatollah Khomeini and the Fatwa
In 1977 Ayatollah Khomenei issued a “fatwa”, which called for the overthrow of the Shah’s government. In 1978 Khomenei emerged as the natural choice for the leader of the Islamic Revolution. Khomenei was more influential and popular than the leadership in Iran, despite his physical absence from the country. After the assassination of Khomeini’s oldest son by the Shah’s security police, the people in Iran became outraged. By this time Iranians were already disillusioned and suffering from the negative effects of massive social corruption and political oppression. The Iranian economy suffered as well. With the assassination of Khomeini’s son this discontent turned into a full-blown rebellion.
In January 1978 the government controlled press printed an article suggesting that Khomenei was an agent of foreign powers. The day following public demonstrations broke out in Qum. The demonstration was suppressed and many demonstrators were killed. Many other demonstrations followed and were held in every major region of Iran. Although still exiled, Ayatollah Khomenei continued to encourage the demonstrators by way of Proclamations. The overriding goal, he told them, was to overthrow the current government and establish an Islamic Republic. The demonstrators responded in huge numbers, using posters of Ayatollah Khomenei as motivators for the public and chanting his name as a rallying cry. The public wanted more than the overthrow of the government; they wanted Ayatollah Khomenei returned as the country’s leader. In response the Shah asked the government of Iraq to expel Khomenei in hopes of destroying his political base. Khomenei told the Iraqi government he would be happy to leave their country in favor of one that was not under the influence of the Shah.
Ayatollah Khomenei moved to France in October 1978 because he believed he would be able to continue to influence the revolution in Iran from this country. The choice of the new country turned out to be a good one for Khomenei and his followers. From France the paths of communications were decidedly easier and Ayatollah Khomenei had more freedom to issue directives to his followers. Many of these directives were issued over the telephone. Moreover, he had the freedom necessary to meet with important Iranian leaders. He also had access to the media, which allowed him to spread his message to people around the world.
Ayatollah Khomenei differed dramatically from the Shah in the following ways:
- Ayatollah Khomeini's preferred methods of operation
- The lengths he was willing to go to in order to secure his plans.
- The Shah was viewed as a vicious and cruel dictator who ordered the slaughter of thousands of unarmed demonstrators and even killed wounded demonstrators in their hospital beds
During 1978 more than 10,000 revolutionaries died. Finally, the Shah was forced to admit defeat and he left Iran in January 1979. In February 1979, Ayatollah Khomenei returned to Iran and was greeted with a heroes welcome. During the same month the last of the Iranian government collapsed and the Islamic Republic of Iran was founded.The revolution led by Ayatollah Khomenei succeeded where previous revolutions in Iran failed due to his charismatic leadership and his determination to maintain his religious ideals in the face of government oppression. Moreover, the Shah unwittingly helped ensure the success of the revolution by his oppressive and cruel regime. Ayatollah Khomenei’s influence began at the school at Qum and spread throughout Iran because he provided the people with hope of a brighter tomorrow and a method of basing social, political and economic actions on religious beliefs.
Once in power, the Ayatollah focused much of Iran’s revolutionary fervor against the United States. Khomeini concluded that America was a paper tiger, and would never be able to strike back. Americans had failed to support “their” shah, the 1979 attempt to rescue the hostages was a military failure, after more that 200 Marines were killed in Beirut, the US pulled out of Lebanon. The US, it would seem, was powerless in the face of jihad. Order a custom biography essay on the Ayatollah Khomeini and learn more about the roots of Islamic Fundamentalism.