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Psychosocial Development of African American College Students

The Relationship Between Racial Identity and Army Reserve Officers Training Corps Leadership Development

The directions for the term paper:

PLEASE USE APA STYLE, 12 FONT, NO BOLD AND LEFT JUSTIFIED

DO NOT USE DIRECT QUOTE. PLEASE PARAPHRASE AND PROVIDE SOURCE AT THE END OF THE SENTENCE OR PARAGRAPH. Need peer reviewed journal article within the last five years max. Stats on education, prison incarceration etc. must be within the last two years.

Psychosocial Development of African American College StudentsPLEASE SEND A COPY OF THE REFERENCE SO I CAN QUICKLY REFERRED TO THEM.
PROVDE TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLES AND FIGURES TO SUPPORT FINDINGS

I AM PROVIDING THE SITE FOR A STUDY SIMILAR TO THIS ONE SO YOU CAN FOLLOW THE LENGTH OF PAGES THEY USED TO COVER THE MATERIAL I AM ASKING FOR. Google the following source:

ABSTRACT
UZZELL, KAMALA LATORI
. The Healthy Psychosocial Development of Black Males: The Relationship Between Wellness and Racial Identity Development. (Under the Direction of Siu-Man Raymond Ting, Ph.D. and Marc Grimmett, Ph.D.)

I would like to try to do the same type research in Chapters 1 and 2 only 20-25 pages using the example below with black female added, current research article with in 5 years and no quotes such source;

He is an example of what would be in my table of contents
CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION............................................................................................. 1
Background of the Study ...................................................................................................... 1
Theoretical Underpinnings ..................................................................................................... 4
Erikson’s Theory of Identity Development................................................................................ 4
Cross’ Model of Psychological Nigrescence............................................................................... 5
Phinney’s Model of Ethnic Identity …… W.E.B. Dubois…… Chickering Vector theory………………………….. 6
CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW ……………………………………………. 9
Obstacles to the Healthy Psychosocial Development of Black Males and Females…………. 9
Limited Range of Positive Black Male and Female Role Models ……………… 10
The Effects of Living in Unfavorable Environments …………………… 11 Negative Peer Influence ………………………………………………… 15
Negative Societal Expectations ………………………………………….. 16
Theoretical Constructs……………………………………………………………. 17
Erikson’s Theory of Identity Development …………………………….. 17
Cross’ Model of Psychological Nigrescence …………………………… 25
Phinney’s Model of Ethnic Identity …………………………………….. 29
W.E.B. Dubois…… Chickering Vector theory………………………….. 6 Synthesis………………………………………………………………………….. 33

TERM PAPER INSTRUCTIONS:
THE BACKGROUND MY PAPER IS BASICALLY UPDATING THIS STUDY BY ADDING BLACK MALES AND USING ARTICLE LESS THAN 5 YEARS OLD
.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

This chapter will provide the background for the study by reviewing obstacles to the psychosocial development of Adolescent African American college students. Relevant theories of identity development, racial identity issues, and gaps in ROTC leadership assessment will outlined.
Background of the Problem
According to economic and social indicators, the quality of life for Adolescent African Americans has been what?
Theorists have argued and research has indicated that African American students are faced with what challenges regarding neighborhoods, families, and college campuses (Source).

For example, in the beginning of the 2006 or 2007, the United States had what number 0f African American between the ages 17-24 under the control of the nation’s criminal justice system than the total number in college ( source).

Over the last decade, for every one Black males and female students enrolled in college, what number of black males and females are added to the prison and jail population (source),

and at current levels of incarceration, African Americans have what chance of going to prison during their lifetime (source).

African American students are matriculating to graduation from college at a what rate compared to other gender, ethnic, or racial group (Source).

The suicide rate for African American Adolescents between the ages of 18 and 24 has increased by what percentage in the last ten years? (source)

It seems apparent that from an early age, African American adolescents are confronted with
challenges of achieving academic, career, and social success. Additionally, African American males and females face the specific challenges of what ? need at least four area pertaining to both black males and females
An example done in a study on just black males used the following categories:

(a) experiencing a limited range of positive Black male and female role models, (b) living in unfavorable environments, and (c) having negative peer and media influences.

Black males and females are suffering immeasurably in our society. They are not being afforded the full benefit of education and societal promotion. What percentage of black males and females are functionally illiterate in United States? ( source) What rate are black males and females be expelled from school (Source).

What is the leading cause of death for young black males and black (Source). Give an example of rates in major cities for males and females (Source)
Give an example of black male and female life expectancy and the reasons why this is (Sources). Paraphrase this sentence-

Write summary describing what have found out. Here is an example of what your dialogue should include but not word for word. The persistence of these negative forces and the
challenges of achieving academic, career, and social success have resulted in a significant social disadvantage for Black males and females. For a significant number of these individuals, this has prevented their healthy psychosocial development.
By definition, healthy psychosocial development is the successful resolution of psychological conflicts encountered during the eight stages of man (Erikson, 1968). It is also a combination of leadership development and an achieved racial identity development. Given that healthy psychosocial development requires trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, identity development, intimacy, generatively, and integrity, it appears as if there are significant threats to the healthy psychosocial development for Black males and females. By definition, structured leadership training similar to type ROTC officer candidates receive
during enrollment in Army Reserve Officers Training Corps Leadership Development training.
is what ………………………………..(Source) . Also by definition, racial identity is one’s sense of belonging to a particular racial group and the impact that sense of belonging has on one’s thinking, perceptions, feelings, and behavior (Rotheram & Phinney, 1987).

For Black male adolescents, racial identity development has been associated with mental health and psychological well-being (Phinney, Lochner &Murphy, 1990; Smith, Walker, Fields, Brookins & Seay, 1999; Stevenson, 1998).

Need to know what the association is for Black females adolescents is regarding racial identity development has been associated with mental health and psychological well-being (source).
Please paraphrase the following from a similar article:
Racial identity has been conceptualized as having both a direct and in-direct link to healthy psychological functioning (Cross, Parham, & Helms, 1998). On the other hand, exaggerated negative images of Black males within this society can result in the internalization of negative stereotypes, negative self-acceptance, and, consequently, mental health problems (Munford, 1994; Phinney et al., 1990; Pyant & Yanico, 1991; Stevenson, 1998). Need information added about black females and a (source)

Explain the the significant obstacles to the healthy psychosocial development that effect both Black males and females.

Here is some background information from another paper describing how black women depend on the success of back males. Please do include the same information. Find another source describing According to Robinson (1999) and the literature on discourses, Black women occupy the bottom level of the discourses, with Black men occupying the level directly above them. Discourses refers top positions that place individuals in power relations with one another (Winslade, Monk, &Drewery, 1997). Because of the occupancy of the lowest level of the discourses structure by the Black female, they have no other recourse, but to look towards Black males, who are positioned directly above them for support, respect, and partnership.
Therefore, if Black males are not psychosocially healthy, they will not be able to provide adequate survival tools with which to assist Black females in their own psychosocial development process. It seems that, in an ironical way, Black males may be lifelines for Black females. They are the initial source of support for Black females as they strive to achieve social elevation. If this support is not readily available from the Black male, the Black female is forced to seek out alternative means of support. Since the psychosocial development of Black males influences the psychosocial development of Black females, then it also influences the welfare of Black families. The mental and/or physical absence or presence of the Black male in their families is crucial to the functioning of that entity. The welfare and survival\of the Black family is contingent upon the psychosocial development of Black males.

 

Theoretical Underpinnings (Please look at the example from another study listed below the instructions I am giving you. Update the information using the same thought process. Please paraphrase and list the source; do not use direct quotes if possible. Make sure you related the information provided by theorist to black males and females.

Erikson’s Theory of Identity Development

James Maciass Model of Identity Development

Phinney’s Model of Ethnic identity

Chickering's vector theory

W.E.B DuBois's concept of "double identity"

Army ROTC leadership development theory

 

EXAMPLE of what I need is listed for reference only- do not copy this work.

Theoretical Underpinnings Examples – please update and use your own words direct wording and sources Erikson’s Theory of Identity Development Erik Erikson’s (1968) psychosocial theory is based on the epigenetic principle of development (Erikson, 1968, 1997; Muuss, 1996) that states that “anything that grows has a ground plan, and that out of this ground plan the parts arise, each part having its time of special ascendancy, until all parts have risen to form a functional whole” (Erikson, 1968, p.92). Erikson believed that individuals go through eight psychosocial developmental stages in which they encounter a crisis that has two opposing possible outcomes: Trust vs.Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. Inferiority, Identity vs. Role Confusion, Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generatively vs. Stagnation, and Integrity vs. Despair. Each stage has a corresponding ego strength that becomes incorporated into the individual’s personality if the crisis is successfully resolved. If the crisis is not successfully resolved, the individual does not gain the ego strength from that stage of development, and as a result, he or she encounters difficulties during the subsequent stages of psychosocial development.

For Black males, during the two critical childhood stages of trust versus mistrust and initiative versus guilt, the absence of a reliable and steady father figure (trust) and the lack of a positive male role model (initiative) in the home or in the neighborhood have a detrimental effect on the successful resolution of the crises in the aforementioned stages.

Childhood is such a critical period of psychosocial development. If Erikson’s childhood ego strengths are not gained, the Black male will experience difficulties in his healthy psychosocial development.
For Black females, please add the same search for opinion for black females as was done for black males

Cross’ Model of Psychological Nigrescence

William Cross’ Model of Psychological Nigrescence (1971) was developed during the Civil Rights Movement and describes five stages of racial identity development for Black individuals: Reencounter, Encounter, Immersion-Emersion, Internalization, and Internalization and Commitment. Cross’ theory , which proposes a link between racial identity and mental health (Carter, 1991; Munford, 1994; Parham & Helms, 1985; Pyant &Yanico, 1991), was developed using the applicability of Erikson’s theory to racial Minority groups. Erikson’s theory describes the stages of development of any individual Regardless of race. Cross introduces race and the specifics of developing a racial identity simultaneously with developing a psychosocial identity.
For Black males and females, practical applications of Cross’ model should be implemented to promote a healthy psychosocial development and a healthy racial identity development.
This would involve exposing Black males and females to cultural activities, positive Black Male mentors and role models, and culturally sensitive individuals from other races.

Phinney’s Model of Ethnic Identity
Jean Phinney’s Model of Ethnic Identity (1990) suggests, like Erikson’s, that identity is both multi-dimensional and that it develops over time. The model, which was developed using components of Erikson’s and Cross’ theories, consists of three stages:
unexamined ethnic identity, ethnic identity search, and ethnic identity achievement. The model assumes that once achieved, identity will remain relatively consistent throughout the individual’s lifetime (Phinney, 1996). Phinney’s research focuses on ethnic issues that are present across all ethnicities. Cross’ research focuses specifically on African-Americans. Although Phinney does not specifically focus on African-Americans or Black individuals, her research does have applicability to Black males. Her research helps to fill in the theoretical and empirical gaps that have resulted from the focus of mainstream research on almost exclusively white middle-class samples (Graham, 1992). She has been able to bring a greater awareness of issues specific to clients from diverse backgrounds.
Summary
Make the summary include everything discussed in introduction

The next chapter is the the review literature. The review of previous works will serve as the breadth for under covering current gaps in the research on the psychosocial development of African American students.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter will provide a review of literature relevant to the circumstances surrounding the present state of African American college students in America. The focus of the literature review will be on the various obstacles that African American students face as they develop psychosocially. The Author will identify and elaborate on the obstacles to the healthy identity development of African American students. In addition, the author will examine the theoretical underpinning for this study based upon the development theories of Erik Erikson, Phinney, James Marcia, and Arthur Chickering, William Cross, Dubois. In addition, the author will examine studies describing the effects of racial identity on academic performance at Predominately White Institution and Black Institutions. The Arthur will provide some example of leadership studies done involving the effects of leadership on African American racial identity to justify the need for the study. The chapter will conclude with a synthesis (title of the section) of the literature review and theoretical underpinning.

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